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Current issue

College of Business E-Journal 

Fall 2023 Volume XVIII, Issue III

ISSN  number 2158-303X




The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the FMLA and provide updated data explaining how this Federal Law is being applied in the workforce and is currently being both utilized and underutilized in protecting the rights and entitlements of employees under Employment Law.



Albert D. Clark, Juris Doctor 

Southern University 




As with many other aspects of work and life, the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted human resource management (HRM) practices internationally and domestically. We aimed to highlight the challenges managers had to face when adapting to remote work and implementing innovative solutions, including HRM practices in Europe and Asia, examining changes in workforce management and employee well-being. The main emphasis of human resource managers was on employees’ need for flexibility, safety measures, and maintaining employee motivation and productivity. Some research suggests that corporate social responsibility can also play a role in addressing HRM challenges during a pandemic. We explored some HRM practices in Central and Eastern Europe, specifically in Portugal, where teleworking became prevalent. The Portuguese study showed that organizations were somewhat prepared but faced difficulties coping with the situation. Additionally, we discussed HRM practices in Taiwan, China, and Hong Kong, highlighting the influence of Western management practices and globalization. In the US, the pandemic has forced HRM to consider alternative work approaches and address disparities within the profession. Work-life balance concerns have been amplified, and HR departments were tasked with finding solutions to manage stress, telecommuting vs. office work debates, and employee well-being while maintaining organizational goals. Some scholars argue that the importance of conflict resolution and the competitive advantage of organizations that offer work-life flexibility is imperative during a pandemic. We suggest that, in the end, human resource managers adapted to the challenges posed by the pandemic and prioritized employee well-being, with many organizations continuing to employ similar workplace adjustments even after the pandemic.



Veronika Humphries

Joshua Tolleson

Taewoo Kim




III. Searching for Fan Discrimination in Football Championship Subdivision
Games: Findings and Implications


Discrimination can take many forms, including customer discrimination. In athletic contests, fans are the customers. Using data from Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) games, this study tests for fan discrimination against Historically Black College and University (HBCU) teams by examining attendance in games hosted by non-HBCU institutions. The statistical analysis shows no significant difference in fan attendance in games in which non-HBCU teams host HBCU teams as compared to when they host teams that are not HBCUs. Moreover, the percentage of white students enrolled in non-HBCU schools has no effect on attendance when a non-HBCU team hosts a HBCU team.



Professor (Associate)
PhD Human Performance
Doctoral minor in Educational Research
Presbyterian College
Economics and Business Administration
Research profile (




Jody Lipford, PhD
Associate Professor
Francis Marion University, SC
Research profile (